Terms in Anti-Doping

There are several common terms used in anti-doping according to the World Anti-Doping Code:


  • ADAMS: The Anti-Doping Administration and Management System is a Web-based database management tool for data entry, storage, sharing, and reporting, designed to assist stakeholders and WADA in their anti-doping operations in conjunction with data protection legislation. (ISE 2021)
  • Anti-Doping Organization: WADA or a Signatory that is responsible for adopting rules for initiating, implementing or enforcing any part of the Doping Control process. This includes, for example, the International Olympic Committee, the International Paralympic Committee, other Major Event Organizations that conduct Testing at their Events, International Federations, and National Anti-Doping Organizations. (ISE 2021)
  • Major Event Organizer (MEO): The continental associations of National Olympic Committees and other international multisport organizations that function as the ruling body for any continental, regional or other International Event. (ISE 2021)
  • Result Management: The process encompassing the timeframe between notification as per Article 5 of the International Standard for Results Management, or in certain cases (e.g., Atypical Finding, Athlete Biological Passport, Whereabouts Failure), such pre-notification steps expressly provided for in Article 5 of the International Standard for Results Management, through the charge until the final resolution of the matter, including the end of the hearing process at first instance or on appeal (if an appeal was lodged). (ISRM 2021)
  • Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE): A Therapeutic Use Exemption allows an Athlete with a medical condition to use a Prohibited Substance or Prohibited Method, but only if the conditions set out in Article 4.4 and the International Standard for Therapeutic Use Exemptions are met. (ISTUE 2021)


  • Athlete: Any Person who competes in sport at the international level (as defined by each International Federation) or the national level (as defined by each National Anti-Doping Organization). An Anti-Doping Organization has discretion to apply anti-doping rules to an Athlete who is neither an International-Level Athlete nor a National-Level Athlete, and thus to bring them within the definition of “Athlete”. In relation to Athletes who are neither International-Level nor National-Level Athletes, an Anti-Doping Organization may elect to: conduct limited Testing or no Testing at all; analyze Samples for less than the full menu of Prohibited Substances; require limited or no whereabouts information; or not require advance TUEs. However, if an article 2.1, 2.3 or 2.5 anti-doping rule violation is committed by any Athlete over whom an Anti-Doping Organization has elected to exercise its authority to test and who competes below the international or national level, then the Consequences set forth in the Code must be applied. For purposes of Article 2.8 and Article 2.9 and for purposes of anti-doping information and Education, any Person who participates in sport under the authority of any Signatory, government, or other sports organization accepting the Code is an Athlete. (ISE 2021)
  • Athlete Support Personnel: Any coach, trainer, manager, agent, team staff, official, medical, paramedical personnel, parent or any other Person working with, treating or assisting an Athlete participating in or preparing for sports Competition. (ISE 2021)
  • International-Level Athlete: Athletes who compete in sport at the international level, as defined by each International Federation, consistent with the International Standard for Testing and Investigations. (ISE 2021)
  • National-Level Athlete: Athletes who compete in sport at the national level, as defined by each National Anti-Doping Organization, consistent with the International Standard for Testing and Investigations. (ISE 2021)


  • Registered Testing Pool (RTP) and Testing Pool (TP): The pool of highest-priority Athletes established separately at the international level by International Federations and at the national level by National Anti-Doping Organizations, who are subject to focused In-Competition and Out-of-Competition Testing as part of that International Federation’s or National Anti-Doping Organization’s test distribution plan and therefore are required to provide whereabouts information as provided in Article 5.5 and the International Standard for Testing and Investigations. The tier below the Registered Testing Pool is the Testing pool and should include Athletes from whom some whereabouts information is required in order to locate and test the Athlete at least once per year Out-of-Competition. (ISTI 2021)
  • Test Distribution Pool: A document written by an Anti-Doping Organization that plans Testing on Athletes, in accordance with the requirements of Article 4 of International Standards for Testing and Investigation. (ISTI 2021)

What is doping?

Doping is not just a positive test. It is defined as the occurrence of one or more of the following Anti-Doping Rule Violations (ADRVs). According to the World Anti-Doping Code and its International Standard the following ADRVs are:

  1. Presence, an athlete has a positive test.
  2. Use, an athlete uses or tries to use a prohibited substance.
  3. Evasion, an athlete does not go to the Doping Control Station (DCS) when notified, or they refuse to take a test, or they do not give a complete sample.
  4. Whereabouts Failure, an athlete is not when they say they will be, or they miss a test during their 60-minute time slot, or they don’t submit their Whereabouts on time, or they submit incomplete or wrong information.
  5. Tampering, an athlete or ASP interferes with the testing or doping control process, including during the prosecution of a case.
  6. Possession, an athlete or ASP has a banned substance in their possession.
  7. Trafficking, an athlete or ASP handles, transports, sells or attempts to sell banned substances.
  8. Administration to an athlete, an athlete or ASP gives or tries to give a banned substance to an athlete.
  9. Complicity, an athlete or ASP helps or tries to help cover up an ADRV or involved with an ADRV in any way.
  10. Prohibited Association, an athlete or ASP works with or seeks help or services from as who is serving a period of ineligibility.
  11. Discourage or Retaliate, an athlete or ASP frightens someone from reporting suspected doping, or they seek revenge against those who have reported doping.

Who will be tested?

Doping tests will be applied to any athletes that are included in RTP or TP, or already targeted by MEO using the Test Distribution Pool (TDP).

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