Prohibited Substances, Classified Into Doping

Prohibited List of WADA. Source: WADA.

Jakarta, 8 July 2023

IADO used to have commitment till now and forever to strongly encourage an increasing awareness and information dissemination on anti-doping across the country, in particular to any athlete from various lines and to ASP (Athlete Support Personnel).  On the event of various anti-doping education activities which were completed successfully to 15 provinces in cooperation with KONI (National Sports Committee of Indonesia) on 2022 and to certain national federations, IADO used to receive questions raised by athletes on prohibited substances which impacted to athlete’s urine or blood which would have become positive cases. Such questions and comments were among others as follows: due to the very medical information which is available on the IADO website on prohibited substances, why is it not common to mention any branded medical product?  All of information on the website are difficult to understand, because these consist of ingredients only of any prohibited medical products / nutrition; how should we have to respond to buy any certain herbal medicines that are sold freely in stores or through online services?

According to the regulation stipulated by WADA, information on prohibited list of WADA relates to prohibited list does not consist of originally certain branded medical product / nutrition instead of their ingredients. It is the reason that any athlete is strongly recommended to consult to his / her medical doctor / medical team of their related team. It is very important, because on the basis of evidence impacting to the doping decision imposed to any athlete, some substances which were used mostly to be caused of buying or consuming certain medical product / supplement without consulting to his / her medical teams.  Such cases were revealed on hearing and even appeal session of result management.

Related to any various energizing drink which are being consumed more and more to increase physical power, it is time to clarify it. The special benefit of any energizing drink relies on its ingredient composition which is believed to have benefit of enhancing physical endurance. Few manufacturers might mention on their promotion that its own product has obtained license from BPOM (Indonesia Food and Drug Authority) and halal certification from MUI (Indonesian Ulema Council). Such procedure is totally correct. However, from the view of the doping regulation, it said based on the other side.  The emerging effects after consuming such products would occur due to content of certain substances which metabolically exert an effect on to any athlete’s stamina and concentration. The administrative information which should be understood is that license from BPOM is a kind of general license for nutrition which is also very important, but it is not on the basis of medical license related to doping substance which should be analyzed more detailed.

Even though public is totally free to consume these, it is however for any national and or international athletes should treat them with caution, because of the content of such supplement generally consists of among others caffeine, sugar and other contents which probably have the following double edged knifes: these could be beneficial and, on the contrary, could be destructive to any related athletes if consumed in excess. Usage of caffeine is quite common to enhance anybody’s stamina. But it should notify its consumption rate limitation related to any side effect after consuming caffeine to physical body in particular to the heart function and age limitation, for its side effect would be very significant to any children or teenage who would become athletes. For information, from 1984 to 2004, WADA classified caffeine as one of the prohibited substances. After that till now it is allowed provided that it is under surveillance of WADA due to the rate limitation.

WADA has actually released the List of Prohibited. That list is updated annually, and its updated Prohibited List comes into effect on 1 January every year.  The list is divided into its substances and methods, namely on one side there are substances and or methods which are prohibited anytime, or those which are prohibited for in competition only in which the period commences just before midnight at 11.59 pm on the day before a completion in which the athlete to schedule to participate until the end of the competition and the sample collection process.

Any prohibited substance which is prohibited anytime will include (but it is not limited to):   hormone, anabolic, EPO, beta-2 agonist, cover substance, and beta-2, cover substance, and diuretic. Some of these substances that are prohibited in competition shall include without limitation: stimulant, marijuana, narcotics, and glucocorticoids. In addition, some prohibited activities at all times are among others a kind of method such as transfusion or blood manipulation, or intravenous injection in certain circumstances.

It is very important to remember that not all substances nor methods are stated on the Prohibited List. Even though it is not stated clearly, a substance or method could be classified into prohibited one if it is not permitted by any government health authority for any human therapeutic use (such as developed medicine for pre-clinical or clinical purposes, or any approved substances for animals only), or it has similar chemical   structure or biological effects. A substance or method can be added to the Prohibited List if it meets at least two of the following three criteria: it has the potential to enhance or enhances sport performance; use of the substance or method represents an actual or potential health risk to the athlete; and or use of the substance or method violates the spirit of sport (as it is explained on the Introduction of the Code).

The following items are prohibited substances and methods which classified on the basis of the List:

  1. S0.   Non-approved substances.
  2. S1.   Anabolic agents.
  3. S2.   Peptide hormones, growth factors, related substances, and mimetics.
  4. S3.   Beta-2 agonist.
  5. S4.   Hormone and metabolic modulators.
  6. S5.   Diuretics and masking agents.
  7. S6.   Stimulants (in competition).
  8. S7.   Narcotics (in competition).
  9. S8.   Cannabinoids (in competition).
  10. S9.   Glucocorticoids (in competition).
  11. M1.   Blood and blood component manipulation.
  12. M2.   Chemical and physical manipulation.
  13. M3.   Gene doping.

An athlete shall be responsible for knowing any prohibited substance and method on the Prohibited List. Under the IADO Regulation referring to the World Anti-Doping Code, the availability of any prohibited substance in athlete’s sample, or use of any prohibited substance or method is a violation to anti-doping regulation and consequently shall get sanctioned. It is therefore important for athletes and ASP to be more familiar with and aware of the Prohibited List issued by WADA, then these shall be communicated to their medical teams and possibly the use of TUE if necessary. The related prohibited list of 2023 version has been translated in Indonesian and can be downloaded on the following part of IADO’s website: Click here to download

Jakarta, 8 July 2023.

Chairman of IADO.
Gatot S. Dewa Broto

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